##### {{c1::Velocity}} is calculated using the formula {{c1::x = displacement (m)}} and {{c1::t = time (seconds)}}.

physics velocity

##### Average {{c1::velocity}} is the total {{c1::displacement}} divided by the total {{c1::time}}.

physics velocity

##### {{c1::Acceleration}} is defined as the rate of change in {{c1::velocity}} due to {{c1::gravity}}.

physics acceleration

##### According to {{c1::Newton's Second Law of motion}}, {{c1::F = m . a}} where {{c1::F}} is {{c1::force}}, {{c1::m}} is {{c1::mass}}, and {{c1::a}} is {{c1::acceleration}}.

physics force newton

##### The force of {{c1::gravity}} acting on an object is given by {{c1::F = m.g}} where {{c1::g}} is the acceleration due to gravity.

physics gravity force

##### The {{c1::Normal Force}} can be calculated as {{c1::weight = mass . gravity}}.

physics weight normal_force

##### {{c1::Static Friction}} can be represented by the {{c1::Coefficient of static friction}}.

physics friction static

##### {{c1::Kinetic Friction}} is defined by the {{c1::Coefficient of kinetic friction}}.

physics friction kinetic

##### {{c1::Speed}} is calculated using the formula {{c1::d = distance (m)}} and {{c1::t = time (seconds)}}.

physics speed

##### {{c1::Momentum}} (P) is calculated as {{c1::mass (m) . velocity (v)}}.

physics momentum

##### {{c1::Pressure}} is defined as {{c1::F = force / A = Area}} and is measured in {{c1::pascal}}.

physics pressure

##### {{c1::Work}} is calculated using the formula {{c1::W = F.d}} where {{c1::F}} is {{c1::force}} and {{c1::d}} is {{c1::displacement}}.

physics work

##### The {{c1::Net work done on an object}} can be derived from the {{c1::force}} applied and the {{c1::displacement}}.

physics work

##### The {{c1::Volume}} of a cylinder can be calculated using {{c1::𝛑}} and the dimensions of the shape.

physics volume

##### {{c1::Density}} is defined as {{c1::mass}} per unit {{c1::volume}}.

physics density

##### {{c1::Weight}} is calculated using the formula {{c1::weight = mass . gravity}}.

physics weight

##### The {{c1::Area}} of a triangle can be calculated using the formula {{c1::Area = 1/2 }} base {{c1:: height}}.

physics area triangle

##### The {{c1::Circumference}} of a circle is calculated using the formula {{c1::Circumference = 2πr}}.

physics circumference circle

##### In trigonometry, {{c1::sine}} is defined as {{c1::sinθ = opposite / hypotenuse}}.

physics trigonometry sine

##### {{c1::Cosine}} is defined as {{c1::cosθ = adjacent / hypotenuse}}.

physics trigonometry cosine

##### {{c1::Tangent}} is defined as {{c1::tanθ = opposite / adjacent}}.

physics trigonometry tangent

##### {{c1::Displacement}} (∆x) is defined as the {{c1::change in position of the object}}.

physics displacement

##### {{c1::Distance}} is measured in {{c1::meters (m)}}.

physics distance

##### The {{c1::slope}} is defined as the ratio of {{c1::rise over run}} and is represented by the angle {{c1::θ}}.

physics slope

##### Units of measurement include {{c1::1 N = 1 kg.m}} and {{c1::π = 3.14159}}.

physics units

##### The {{c1::gravitational constant}} is approximately {{c1::6.67 N}}m²/kg²*.

physics gravity

##### {{c1::ρ (rho)}} represents {{c1::density}}, {{c1::η (eta)}} represents {{c1::coefficient of viscosity}}, and {{c1::ε (epsilon)}} is the {{c1::permittivity of free space}}.

physics greek

##### {{c1::ω (omega)}} represents {{c1::angular velocity}}.

physics angular_velocity

##### 1 {{c1::tesla}} = {{c1::10,000}} gauss.

physics units magnetism

##### Specific Temp (usually) = {{c1::4°C}}.

physics temperature

##### The {{c1::fundamental unit charge}} is {{c1::1.6}} Coulombs.

physics charge

##### The {{c1::speed of light}} (c) is {{c1::2.99792458}} m/s.

physics light

##### Gravity - {{c1::Newton's Law of Gravitation}} states F = {{c1::G}}.

physics gravity

##### Newton's {{c1::FIRST LAW}} states: P = {{c1::mv}}.

physics motion

##### According to the {{c1::SECOND LAW}}, acceleration depends on net force and mass.

physics motion

##### The {{c1::THIRD LAW}} states: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

physics motion

##### The {{c1::horizontal component}} of a projectile's motion is affected by {{c1::gravity}}.

physics projectile

##### To find {{c1::vertical displacement}} of a projectile, use kinematic equations.

physics projectile

##### The {{c1::net force}} is the sum of all forces acting on an object.

physics forces

##### In {{c1::inclined plane motion}}, gravity has components that are {{c1::parallel}} and {{c1::perpendicular}}.

physics motion

##### {{c1::Centripetal acceleration}} occurs when velocity changes but speed stays the same.

physics circular_motion

##### {{c1::Tangential velocity}} is the linear speed of an object moving along a circular path.

physics circular_motion

##### {{c1::Gravitational Potential Energy}} depends on mass and height.

physics energy

##### {{c1::Kinetic Energy}} is given by the formula 1/2 *mv².

physics energy

##### {{c1::Conservation Laws}} state that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

physics energy

##### {{c1::Torque}} is the rotational equivalent of linear force.

physics forces

##### {{c1::Frequency}} is the number of oscillations per second measured in {{c1::hz}}.

physics waves

##### {{c1::Wavelength}} (λ) is one complete oscillation measured in {{c1::meters}}.

physics waves

##### The law of {{c1::conservation}} states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed.

physics energy conservation

##### {{c1::Mechanical energy}} is the sum of {{c1::kinetic}} and {{c1::potential}} energy.

physics energy mechanical

##### Electric potential energy depends on the {{c1::distance}} between charges, denoted as {{c1::r}}.

physics energy electricity

##### The formula for electric potential energy involves {{c1::Coulomb's constant}}, represented as {{c1::k}}.

physics energy electricity

##### Less energy in a system means {{c1::more stability}} in electric potential.

physics energy stability

##### {{c1::Electric power}} is the rate at which electric energy is transferred.

physics electricity power

##### {{c1::Mechanical advantage}} is the factor by which a machine multiplies the force.

physics advantage mechanical

##### The {{c1::tension}} in a rope is the force transmitted through it when pulled.

physics mechanics tension

##### {{c1::Cohesion}} and {{c1::adhesion}} are properties that contribute to {{c1::surface tension}} in liquids.

physics tension liquids

##### {{c1::Archimedes' principle}} states that a body submerged in fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

physics buoyancy principle

##### {{c1::Specific gravity}} is a dimensionless quantity that compares the density of a substance to that of water.

physics gravity density

##### The {{c1::continuity}} equation states that the mass flow rate must remain constant from one cross-section of a pipe to another.

physics fluids continuity

##### {{c1::Poiseuille's law}} describes the flow of a viscous fluid in a pipe.

physics fluids viscosity

##### {{c1::Reynold's number}} is a dimensionless quantity used to predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

physics fluids turbulence

##### {{c1::Bernoulli's principle}} states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or potential energy.

physics fluids principle

##### The {{c1::Venturi effect}} describes the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe.

physics fluids effect

##### {{c1::Conductors}} allow electric current to flow easily, while {{c1::insulators}} do not.

physics electricity conductors

##### {{c1::Intensity}} is the power per unit area carried by a wave.

physics intensity waves

##### {{c1::Electric current}} is the flow of electric charge in a circuit.

physics electricity current

##### {{c1::Coulomb's law}} describes the relationship between electric force, charge, and distance between charges.

physics electricity law

##### The {{c1::electrostatic force}} is the force between charged objects.

physics force electricity

##### An {{c1::electric field}} is a region around a charged object where other charges experience a force.

physics electricity field

##### The magnitude of a uniform electric field can be calculated using the formula {{c1::E = F/Q}}.

physics electricity field

##### The force experienced by a charge in a uniform electric field is given by {{c1::F = EQ}}.

physics force electricity

##### {{c1::Electric potential (V)}} is the work done per unit charge in moving a charge from infinity to a point in an electric field.

physics electricity potential

##### The {{c1::electric potential difference}} (voltage) is the work done to move a unit charge between two points in an electric field.

physics electricity voltage

##### The concept of {{c1::potential energy}} can be analogized with gravitational potential energy when considering electric charges.

physics energy potential

##### The energy possessed by an {{c1::electric charge}} is analogous to the potential energy of a ball at height.

physics charge energy

##### The electrical potential difference is analogous to the concept of moving from {{c1::higher gravitational potential}} to {{c1::lower}}.

physics electricity potential

##### The energy possessed by {{c1::electric charges}} is known as {{c1::electrical energy}}.

physics energy electricity

##### A charge with {{c1::higher potential}} will have {{c1::more potential energy}} than a charge with lesser potential.

physics electricity potential

##### The difference in energies per unit charge is known as the {{c1::electric potential difference}}.

physics electricity potential

##### To create electricity and the flow of current, a {{c1::potential difference}} is always required, maintained by a {{c1::battery}} or a {{c1::cell}}.

physics electricity current

##### An {{c1::ammeter}} measures the {{c1::electric current intensity}}.

physics electricity ammeter

##### A {{c1::voltmeter}} measures the {{c1::electric potential difference}}.

physics electricity voltmeter

##### An {{c1::ohmmeter}} measures the {{c1::resistance}} of a component.

physics electricity ohmmeter

##### {{c1::Diamagnetic}} materials are characterized by their weak repulsion to magnetic fields.

physics magnetism diamagnetic

##### {{c1::Paramagnetic}} materials are attracted to magnetic fields due to unpaired electrons.

physics magnetism paramagnetic

##### One of the vital requirements of {{c1::ferromagnetic}} materials is that ions and atoms should possess {{c1::permanent magnetic moments}}.

physics magnetism ferromagnetic

##### The {{c1::Lorentz Force}} describes the force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field.

physics magnetism lorentz

##### The force on a wire carrying current in a magnetic field is described by the {{c1::Magnetic Force}} equation.

physics force magnetism

##### A {{c1::galvanic cell}} or {{c1::electrochemical cell}} converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

physics electricity cell

##### {{c1::Resistors}} limit the flow of electric current in a circuit.

physics electricity resistor

##### {{c1::Resistance (R)}} is different from {{c1::resistivity (ρ)}}, which is a material property.

physics electricity resistance

##### {{c1::Resistivity (ρ)}} is inversely related to {{c1::conductivity (σ)}}.

physics electricity conductivity

##### {{c1::Conductivity}} can be either {{c1::metallic}} or {{c1::electrolytic}}.

physics electricity conductivity

##### {{c1::Direct current (DC)}} is different from {{c1::Alternating current (AC)}}.

physics electricity current

##### {{c1::Kirchhoff's First Law}} deals with the conservation of charge in a circuit.

physics electricity kirchhoff

##### {{c1::Kirchhoff's Second Law}} relates to the conservation of energy in a circuit.

physics electricity kirchhoff

##### {{c1::Resistors in series}} have a total resistance that is the {{c1::sum}} of individual resistances, while {{c1::in parallel}} they have a {{c1::combined resistance}} less than the smallest individual resistor.

physics electricity resistors

##### {{c1::Electromotive Force}} is also known as the {{c1::terminal voltage}} of a circuit.

physics electricity emf

##### {{c1::Capacitance}} measures a capacitor's ability to store electric potential energy.

physics electricity capacitance

##### The formula for {{c1::Dielectric Capacitance}} is C' = kC, where k is the {{c1::dielectric constant}}.

physics electricity capacitance

##### Capacitors can be arranged in {{c1::series}} or {{c1::parallel}} configurations, affecting their total capacitance.

physics electricity capacitors

##### {{c1::Amplitude}} refers to the maximum extent of a wave's oscillation.

physics amplitude waves

##### {{c1::Frequency}} is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.

physics frequency waves

##### The frequency of {{c1::sound}} is measured in {{c1::hertz}}.

physics frequency sound

##### The frequency of {{c1::light}} is also measured in {{c1::hertz}}.

physics frequency light

##### The {{c1::period}} of sound is the reciprocal of its {{c1::frequency}}.

physics sound period

##### {{c1::Mechanical waves}} can be classified into {{c1::transverse}} and {{c1::longitudinal}} waves.

physics waves mechanical

##### In {{c1::transverse waves}}, the particle displacement is {{c1::perpendicular}} to wave propagation.

physics waves transverse

##### In {{c1::longitudinal waves}}, the particle displacement is {{c1::parallel}} to wave propagation.

physics waves longitudinal

##### A {{c1::pendulum}} exhibits {{c1::simple harmonic motion}} when displaced from its equilibrium position.

physics motion pendulum

##### {{c1::Angular frequency}} is related to the {{c1::frequency}} of a wave by the formula ω = 2πf.

##### A {{c1::sinusoidal wave}} is characterized by a smooth periodic oscillation.

physics waves sinusoidal

##### The speed of {{c1::sound}} in a fluid depends on the {{c1::bulk modulus}} and {{c1::density}} of the medium.

physics sound fluid

##### Wave speed (v) is influenced by the {{c1::medium}} through which it travels.

physics speed waves

##### The speed of {{c1::light}} in a vacuum is approximately {{c1::299,792,458 m/s}}.

physics speed light

##### Wave behavior includes {{c1::reflection}}, {{c1::refraction}}, and {{c1::diffraction}}.

physics waves behavior

##### {{c1::Reflection}} occurs when a wave bounces off a surface.

physics waves reflection

##### {{c1::Total internal reflection}} happens when a wave hits a boundary at an angle greater than the {{c1::critical angle}}.

physics waves reflection

##### {{c1::Refraction}} is the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another.

physics waves refraction

##### The {{c1::refractive index}} (n) determines how much light bends in different media.

physics waves refraction

##### {{c1::Optical density}} is related to how much light is slowed down in a medium.

physics waves optical

##### The {{c1::Laws of Refraction}} are described by {{c1::Snell's Law}}.

physics waves refraction

##### {{c1::Diffraction}} is the spreading of waves around obstacles or through openings.

physics waves diffraction

##### The {{c1::superposition principle}} states that the total displacement is the sum of individual displacements.

physics waves superposition

##### {{c1::Constructive interference}} occurs when wave amplitudes add together.

physics waves interference

##### {{c1::Destructive interference}} occurs when wave amplitudes cancel each other out.

physics waves interference

##### {{c1::Standing waves}} form when two waves of the same frequency interfere.

physics waves standing

##### {{c1::Resonance}} occurs when an object vibrates at its natural frequency due to an external force.

physics waves resonance

##### The {{c1::Doppler Effect}} describes the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer moving relative to the source.

physics waves doppler

##### {{c1::Sound intensity}} (I) depends on {{c1::amplitude}} (A) and is measured in {{c1::decibels}} (dB).

physics intensity sound

##### {{c1::Loudness}} is a subjective perception related to sound intensity.

physics loudness sound

##### {{c1::Beat frequency}} is the difference between two frequencies that are close together.

physics sound beat

##### {{c1::Harmonies}} occur on strings and pipes at specific frequencies.

physics sound harmonies

##### {{c1::Dispersion of light}} occurs when different wavelengths are refracted by different amounts.

physics light dispersion

##### {{c1::Spherical mirrors}} can be either {{c1::concave}} or {{c1::convex}}.

physics mirrors spherical

##### {{c1::Concave mirrors}} converge light rays to a focal point.

physics mirrors concave

##### {{c1::Convex mirrors}} diverge light rays, causing them to spread out.

physics mirrors convex

##### {{c1::Lenses}} are optical devices that refract light to form images.

physics optics lenses

##### {{c1::Focal length}} is the distance from the lens to the focal point where light converges.

physics lenses focal

##### {{c1::Scalars}} have magnitude only, while {{c1::vectors}} have both magnitude and direction.

physics scalars vectors

##### The {{c1::vector dot product}} measures the cosine of the angle between two vectors.

physics vectors dot

##### The {{c1::cross product of vectors}} produces a vector that is perpendicular to the plane formed by the original vectors.

physics vectors cross

##### {{c1::Motion}} is the change in position of an object over time.

physics motion kinematics

##### The {{c1::equations of motion}} describe the relationship between distance, velocity, acceleration, and time.

physics motion equations

##### In the first equation of motion, final velocity is determined by initial velocity, acceleration, and time.

physics motion first

##### The second equation of motion relates distance to initial velocity, time, and acceleration.

physics motion second

##### The third equation of motion connects final velocity, initial velocity, acceleration, and distance.

physics motion third

##### {{c1::Fundamental units}} are base units in a measurement system, while {{c1::derived units}} are combinations of these.

physics units fundamental

##### {{c1::Contact forces}} require physical contact between objects, while {{c1::non-contact forces}} act at a distance.

physics forces contact

##### The {{c1::center of mass}} is the point where the mass of a system is concentrated.

physics center mass

##### The formula for {{c1::weight}} (W) is W=mg, where {{c1::g}} is the acceleration due to {{c1::gravity}}.

physics gravity weight

##### {{c1::Current}} (I) is defined as the rate of {{c1::charge}} transfer, measured in {{c1::amperes}} (A).

physics electricity current

##### The charge on a {{c1::conductor}} is quickly distributed across the entire {{c1::surface}} of the object.

physics charge conductors

##### {{c1::Insulating cups}} are used to prevent charge from {{c1::escaping}} during the charging process.

physics insulators charging

##### {{c1::Static friction}} (F) is a force that opposes the motion of an object at rest.

physics friction forces

##### The {{c1::applied force}} (F) is the force exerted on an object to cause {{c1::motion}}.

physics forces motion

##### The {{c1::mass}} (m) of an object affects its {{c1::acceleration}} when a net force is applied.

physics acceleration mass

##### The unit of {{c1::electric current}} is measured in {{c1::amperes}} (A).

physics units current

##### Electric current is the rate of {{c1::charge transfer}}, that is, the amount of electric {{c1::charge}} passing a certain point per {{c1::unit of time}}.

physics electricity current

##### Current is measured in {{c1::amperes}} (A).

units electricity current

##### In a flashlight, the electric current flows from the {{c1::batteries}} through a {{c1::wire}} to the light bulb {{c1::filament}}.

electricity current flashlight

##### Coulomb's law states that the electrical force between two charges (q1) and (q2) is proportional to the product of the two {{c1::charges}} divided by the {{c1::distance}} between them squared.

physics forces coulomb

##### The {{c1::Coulomb constant}} K is 8.9875 x 10^9 N·m²/C².

physics constants coulomb

##### The {{c1::resultant force}} can be either {{c1::attractive}} or {{c1::repulsive}} depending on the charges involved.

physics forces charges

##### The electric field strength E is defined as E = F/q, where F is the {{c1::Electric Force}} and q is the {{c1::test charge}}.

electricity forces fields

##### The electric field direction is always directed away from {{c1::positive source charges}} and toward {{c1::negative source charges}}.

electricity fields direction

##### The electric field strength E between two oppositely charged parallel plates is proportional to the {{c1::potential difference}} V and inversely proportional to the {{c1::separation}} d.

electricity fields potential

##### The electric potential V at any point in an electric field is the electric potential {{c1::energy}} U per unit {{c1::charge}} associated with a test charge q' at that point.

energy electricity potential

##### The SI unit of potential is called one {{c1::volt}} (1 V).

units electricity potential

##### Electric potential is a {{c1::scalar}} quantity, defined as the work done per unit charge to bring that charge from {{c1::infinity}} to a point in the {{c1::electrostatic field}}.

physics electricity potential

##### The SI unit of electric potential is called one {{c1::volt}} (1 V), named after the Italian scientist {{c1::Alessandro Volta}}.

physics units electricity

##### Electric potential is not the same as {{c1::potential energy}}; potential energy involves the energy needed to move a test charge in an electric field.

physics energy electricity

##### The formula for electric potential V is given by {{c1::V = k(q/r)}}, where k is the electrostatic constant and r is the separation between charges.

physics electricity formulas

##### Electric potential energy U can be calculated as {{c1::U = k(q1q2/r)}} for two charges q1 and q2 separated by distance r.

physics energy formulas

##### The electric potential difference (E) between two points is defined as the work done (W) in moving a unit charge (Q) from one point to another, expressed as {{c1::E = W/Q}}.

physics electricity potential

##### Average speed is a {{c1::scalar quantity}}, calculated as total distance travelled divided by total time.

physics speed motion

##### An electric dipole consists of a couple of {{c1::opposite charges}} separated by a distance.

physics electricity dipole

##### An {{c1::electric dipole}} consists of a couple of opposite charges {{c1::q}} and {{c1::-q}} separated by a distance {{c1::d}}.

physics electricity dipole

##### The direction of electric dipoles is from the negative charge {{c1::-q}} to the positive charge {{c1::q}}.

physics electricity dipole

##### The symbol for an electric dipole is {{c1::p}} and is defined as the product of the charges' magnitude and the distance {{c1::d}}.

physics electricity dipole

##### The flow of charge is measured in {{c1::current}}, defined as the amount of charge that flows through a wire in a given time.

physics electricity current

##### Current is measured in {{c1::amperes}} (A), where 1 amp is equal to 1 coulomb per {{c1::second}}.

physics electricity current

##### An {{c1::ammeter}} measures current and must be placed in {{c1::series}} with the circuit.

physics electricity ammeter

##### The {{c1::ideal ammeter}} has a resistance of {{c1::0}} to avoid changing the current being measured.

physics electricity ammeter

##### Voltage is defined as {{c1::energy}} per coulomb, represented by the formula {{c1::V = E/Q}}.

physics electricity voltage

##### A {{c1::voltmeter}} measures voltage and must be placed in {{c1::parallel}} with the circuit being measured.

physics electricity voltmeter

##### The ideal {{c1::voltmeter}} has a resistance of {{c1::0}} to prevent current from flowing through it.

physics electricity voltmeter

##### The relationship between voltage, current, and resistance is expressed as {{c1::V = IR}}.

physics electricity ohm's_law

##### Doubling the battery voltage leads to a {{c1::doubling}} of the current in the circuit.

physics electricity current

##### Doubling the total {{c1::resistance}} in a circuit serves to halve the current.

physics electricity resistance

##### {{c1::Resistors}} are used in circuits to control the amount of current present in various components.

physics electricity resistors

##### Kitchen appliances like {{c1::electric mixers}} operate by altering the current through changing the {{c1::resistance}}.

physics electricity appliances

##### Pressure is defined by the formula {{c1::P = ρgh}}, where ρ is the density of a fluid, {{c1::g}} is the acceleration due to gravity, and {{c1::h}} is the height of the fluid column.

physics pressure fluid

##### {{c1::Pressure}} is the force exerted by a gas or fluid per unit area.

physics pressure fluid

##### The {{c1::pressure density}} of a gas or fluid is related to {{c1::acceleration due to gravity}} ({{c1::9.80 m/s²}}) and {{c1::height}} of the column.

physics pressure fluid

##### A {{c1::voltmeter}} is a high resistance device that does not draw appreciable {{c1::current}} from the circuit.

voltage electronics meters

##### The frequency of AC is dependent upon the {{c1::country}}.

physics frequency ac

##### An {{c1::ohmmeter}} uses a {{c1::voltage source}} to drive a small current through the external resistance to be measured.

resistance electronics meters

##### An {{c1::ammeter}} must carry the total current of the circuit without appreciable {{c1::voltage drop}}.

current electronics meters

##### {{c1::Ferromagnetism}} is a phenomenon where certain materials like {{c1::iron}} strongly attract each other.

physics magnetism materials

##### {{c1::Ferromagnetic materials}} are powerful magnets, while {{c1::paramagnetic}} materials are weakly attracted to magnets.

physics magnetism materials

##### {{c1::Diamagnetic materials}} are weakly repelled from a magnetic field and do not retain magnetism after the field is removed.

physics magnetism materials

##### Using {{c1::Ampere's Law}}, the strength of the magnetic field surrounding a long straight current-carrying wire is given by {{c1::B = (μ₀I)/(2πr)}}.

physics magnetism formulas

##### The {{c1::Lorentz Force Law}} states that the magnetic force on a moving charge is given by {{c1::F = q(v x B)}}.

physics force magnetism

##### The force is {{c1::perpendicular}} to both the velocity of the charge and the magnetic field, as described by the {{c1::right hand rule}}.

physics force magnetism

##### The magnitude of the magnetic force is {{c1::F = qvB sin(θ)}}, where θ is the angle between velocity and magnetic field.

physics force magnetism

##### The magnetic force on a {{c1::stationary charge}} or a charge moving parallel to the magnetic field is {{c1::zero}}.

physics force magnetism

##### The strength of the {{c1::magnetic force}} on a charge varies depending on the relative directions of the {{c1::magnetic field}} and the charge's {{c1::velocity vector}}.

physics forces magnetism

##### A charged particle moving in a magnetic field experiences a force that is {{c1::perpendicular}} to both the particle’s {{c1::velocity}} and to the {{c1::magnetic field}} itself.

physics forces magnetism

##### The {{c1::Lorentz Force Law}} states that the magnitude of the magnetic force is given by F = {{c1::qvB sin(θ)}}.

physics magnetism equations

##### The unit of the {{c1::magnetic field}}, B, is {{c1::Tesla}} (T), named in honor of {{c1::Nikola Tesla}}.

physics units magnetism

##### The {{c1::absolute pressure}} is the gauge pressure plus the {{c1::atmospheric pressure}}.

physics pressure

##### The magnetic force is strongest when the field and velocity are {{c1::perpendicular}} to each other, and zero if moving {{c1::parallel}} to the field.

physics forces magnetism

##### To find the direction of the magnetic force, use the {{c1::right-hand rule}} where your thumb points in the direction of the charge's velocity.

physics magnetism rules

##### In a {{c1::galvanic cell}}, an oxidation reaction occurs at the {{c1::anode}}, producing {{c1::electrons}}.

electrochemistry cells chemistry

##### In a galvanic cell, a reduction reaction occurs at the {{c1::cathode}}, consuming {{c1::electrons}} on the electrode surface.

electrochemistry cells chemistry

##### In a galvanic cell, an {{c1::oxidation}} reaction occurs at the {{c1::anode}}, producing {{c1::electrons}}.

galvanic cells chemistry

##### At the {{c1::cathode}}, a {{c1::reduction}} reaction occurs, consuming {{c1::electrons}} on the electrode surface.

galvanic cells chemistry

##### Electrons flow from {{c1::anode}} to {{c1::cathode}} via external circuits, creating a {{c1::current}} in a direction from {{c1::cathode}} to {{c1::anode}}.

current galvanic chemistry

##### In an electrolytic cell, {{c1::charges}} flow in the {{c1::opposite direction}}, driven by an {{c1::external voltage}}.

electrolytic cells chemistry

##### The sign convention of current in {{c1::galvanic cells}} is defined to have a {{c1::positive}} sign.

current galvanic chemistry

##### In an electrolytic cell, a current has a {{c1::negative value}}.

current electrolytic chemistry

##### Electrical {{c1::resistance}} (R) is a measure of its opposition to the flow of {{c1::electric current}}.

physics current resistance

##### The SI unit of electrical resistance is the {{c1::ohm}} (Ω).

physics units resistance

##### Electrical {{c1::resistivity}} (ρ) measures how strongly a material resists {{c1::electric current}}.

physics current resistivity

##### The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the {{c1::ohm-meter}} (Ω·m).

physics units resistivity

##### Resistivity is a {{c1::material property}} and is independent of {{c1::sample geometry}}.

physics resistivity properties

##### In metallic conduction, electricity flows without the {{c1::decomposition}} of the substance.

conductivity metallic chemistry

##### In electrolytic conduction, electricity flows with the {{c1::decomposition}} of the substance.

conductivity electrolytic chemistry

##### Conductivity in metallic conduction decreases with {{c1::temperature increase}}.

temperature conductivity chemistry

##### Conductivity in electrolytic conduction increases with {{c1::dissociation}} due to an increase in {{c1::ion concentration}}.

conductivity electrolytic chemistry

##### The unit of electrolytic conductivity is {{c1::Siemens}} (S) per meter (S/m).

physics units conductivity

##### Direct Current (DC) has a {{c1::constant direction}} of current flow.

physics current dc

##### Alternating Current (AC) is transferred over longer distances with {{c1::less energy loss}}.

physics energy ac

##### The flow of {{c1::direct current (DC)}} does not change {{c1::periodically}} and moves in a {{c1::single direction}}.

electricity current dc

##### The major use of {{c1::DC}} is to supply power to {{c1::electrical devices}} and to charge {{c1::batteries}}.

electricity dc batteries

##### {{c1::Alternating current (AC)}} changes its direction {{c1::periodically}} and is commonly used for {{c1::household equipment}}.

electricity current ac

##### AC can be identified in a {{c1::waveform}} called a {{c1::sine wave}} which represents {{c1::electric cycles}}.

electricity ac waveform

##### {{c1::Kirchhoff’s Laws}} deal with the conservation of {{c1::current}} and {{c1::energy}} within electrical circuits.

electricity kirchhoff laws

##### {{c1::Kirchhoff's Current Law}} states that the total of the {{c1::currents}} in a junction is equal to the sum of currents {{c1::outside}} the junction.

electricity current kirchhoff

##### {{c1::Kirchhoff's Voltage Law}} states that the sum of the {{c1::voltages}} around a closed loop is equal to {{c1::null}}.

electricity voltage kirchhoff

##### The algebraic sum of every current entering and leaving the {{c1::node}} has to be {{c1::null}} according to Kirchhoff's laws.

electricity current node

##### AC is capable of powering {{c1::electric motors}} which are used in {{c1::refrigerators}} and {{c1::washing machines}}.

electricity ac motors

##### Kirchhoff's {{c1::current law}} can also be applied to analyze {{c1::parallel circuits}}.

circuit law analysis

##### The algebraic sum of every {{c1::voltage}} in the loop has to be equal to {{c1::zero}}.

voltage circuit law

##### The {{c1::voltage law}} can also be applied in analyzing circuits in {{c1::series}}.

voltage series circuit

##### {{c1::Electromotive force}} (emf) is the potential difference of a source when no {{c1::current}} is flowing.

electricity current emf

##### The {{c1::terminal voltage}} is the voltage output of a device measured across its {{c1::terminals}}.

voltage device terminals

##### Electric potential difference creates an electric field that exerts {{c1::force}} on charges, causing {{c1::current}}.

electricity current potential

##### A {{c1::capacitor}} consists of two parallel plates separated by a {{c1::dielectric}}.

electricity dielectric capacitor

##### When a {{c1::DC voltage}} source is connected across the capacitor, one plate is positive and the other is {{c1::negative}}.

voltage capacitor polarity

##### The {{c1::charging time}} of the capacitor is the time span it takes to hold the maximum amount of {{c1::charge}}.

charge charging capacitor

##### A capacitor constructed from two conductive metal plates spaced 6mm apart uses {{c1::dry air}} as its dielectric material.

dielectric capacitor construction

##### The formula to calculate the {{c1::capacitance}} of a capacitor is C = {{c1::ε}} * A / d.

capacitance formula capacitor

##### The formula for capacitance is C = {{c1::ε₀}} {{c1::A/d}}, where {{c1::ε₀}} = 8.854 x 10^-12 F/m, A = {{c1::0.3}} x {{c1::0.5}} m², and d = {{c1::6}} x 10^-3 m.

physics capacitance formulas

##### The presence of a {{c1::dielectric}} reduces the electric field strength, which in turn reduces the {{c1::potential difference}} across the capacitor plates.

physics capacitance dielectric

##### In a series connection of capacitors, the {{c1::charge}} and {{c1::current}} are the same on all capacitors.

physics series capacitors

##### The equivalent capacitance in series is given by {{c1::1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + ... + 1/CN}}.

physics capacitance series

##### The {{c1::amplitude}} of a sound wave is a measure of the {{c1::height}} of the wave and is directly proportional to the {{c1::loudness}} of the sound.

physics amplitude sound

##### The formula for force acting on {{c1::piston A}} is F = {{c1::mg}}, where m is the mass and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

physics force piston

##### The {{c1::pressure}} exerted on piston B can be calculated using P = {{c1::F/A}}, where F is the force and A is the area.

physics pressure piston

##### The {{c1::frequency}} of sound is defined as the number of oscillations per second, measured in {{c1::hertz (Hz)}}.

physics frequency sound

##### The relationship between frequency and period is given by {{c1::Frequency = 1/Period}}.

physics frequency waves

##### The frequency of a wave is measured in {{c1::hertz}} and is denoted by {{c1::Hz}}.

physics frequency waves

##### The formula for frequency is {{c1::Frequency = 1/Period}}.

physics waves formulas

##### The frequency of light is the number of {{c1::peaks}} that pass by a given point in space per second.

physics frequency light

##### The relationship for light is given by the equation {{c1::c = λν}}, where c is the speed of light, λ is the {{c1::wavelength}}, and ν is the {{c1::frequency}}.

physics light formulas

##### The speed of light is approximately {{c1::3.0 x 10^8 m/s}}.

physics speed light

##### A {{c1::period}} can be defined as the time taken for a periodic event to repeat itself.

physics period waves

##### The time taken by a particle to complete one vibration cycle is known as the {{c1::time period}} for that particle.

physics period waves

##### The formula for period is {{c1::Period = 1/Frequency}}.

physics waves formulas

##### The {{c1::wavelength}} is the distance from {{c1::crest to crest}} in a wave.

physics wavelength waves

##### The {{c1::speed of light}} is approximately {{c1::300,000 km/sec}}.

physics speed waves

##### In {{c1::transverse waves}}, the displacement of the particle is {{c1::perpendicular}} to the direction of wave propagation.

physics waves transverse

##### Examples of transverse waves include {{c1::ripples on water}}, {{c1::secondary earthquake waves}}, and {{c1::electromagnetic waves}}.

physics waves examples

##### In {{c1::longitudinal waves}}, the displacement of the particle is {{c1::parallel}} to the direction of wave propagation.

physics waves longitudinal

##### Examples of longitudinal waves include {{c1::sound waves in air}}, {{c1::primary earthquake waves}}, and {{c1::ultrasound}}.

physics waves examples

##### A {{c1::compression}} is a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are {{c1::closest together}}.

physics waves compression

##### A {{c1::rarefaction}} is a region in a longitudinal wave where the particles are {{c1::furthest apart}}.

physics waves rarefaction

##### The period (T) of a pendulum is given by the formula {{c1::T = 2π√(L/g)}}, where L is the length and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

physics pendulum formulas

##### A {{c1::pendulum}} is a weight suspended from a fixed point that can freely swing back and forth under {{c1::gravity’s influence}}.

physics pendulum definition

##### {{c1::Periodic motion}} is any motion that {{c1::repeats itself}} at regular intervals.

physics motion definition

##### A {{c1::pendulum}} is a weight suspended from a fixed point that can freely swing back and forth under {{c1::gravity}}’s influence.

physics gravity pendulum

##### {{c1::Periodic motion}} is any motion that {{c1::repeats}} itself at regular intervals.

physics motion periodic

##### The acceleration due to {{c1::gravity}} (g) is approximately {{c1::9.8 m/s²}} near Earth's surface.

physics gravity acceleration

##### {{c1::Work}} is calculated using the formula Work = {{c1::Force}} x {{c1::Displacement}} when F and d are in different directions.

physics force work

##### {{c1::Simple harmonic motion}} (SHM) is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is proportional to the {{c1::displacement}} from the equilibrium position.

physics motion shm

##### The equation for SHM is given by {{c1::x(t) = A cos(wt + @)}}, where A is the amplitude and w is the {{c1::angular frequency}}.

physics shm equation

##### One common example of SHM is the motion of a {{c1::mass}} attached to a {{c1::spring}}.

physics shm spring

##### The period of oscillation of the mass-spring system depends on the {{c1::mass}} of the object and the {{c1::spring constant}}.

physics spring oscillation

##### A {{c1::simple pendulum}} consists of a mass attached to a weightless string that is suspended from a fixed point.

physics motion pendulum

##### The period of oscillation of the pendulum depends on the {{c1::length}} of the string and the acceleration due to {{c1::gravity}}.

physics gravity pendulum

##### {{c1::Angular frequency}} (w) represents how quickly an object oscillates in circular motion.

physics motion angular_frequency

##### For a sinusoidal wave, angular frequency refers to the {{c1::angular displacement}} per unit of time.

physics wave angular_frequency

##### The formula for angular frequency is {{c1::w = 2πf}}, where f is the ordinary frequency of the wave.

physics formula angular_frequency

##### In a fluid, the speed of sound depends on the {{c1::bulk modulus}} and the {{c1::density}}.

physics sound fluid

##### Wave speed is the distance a wave travels per {{c1::unit time}}.

physics speed wave

##### Wave speed (v) can be calculated using the equation {{c1::v = A/T}}, where A is the wavelength and T is the time period.

physics wave_speed equation

##### The units for wave speed are {{c1::metres per second}} (m/s), the SI units for speed.

physics units wave_speed

##### Wavelength is inversely proportional to {{c1::frequency}}, meaning as wavelength increases, frequency decreases.

physics frequency wave

##### All {{c1::electromagnetic waves}} travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, approximately {{c1::3 x 10^8 m/s}}.

physics waves electromagnetic

##### As {{c1::wavelength}} increases, {{c1::frequency}} decreases.

physics waves electromagnetic

##### All {{c1::electromagnetic waves}} travel at the speed of {{c1::light}} in a vacuum, approximately {{c1::2.998 x 10^8 m/s}}.

speed light waves

##### The equation {{c1::c = λf}} can be used for light and any other {{c1::electromagnetic wave}} travelling through a vacuum.

physics waves equations

##### {{c1::Reflection}}, {{c1::refraction}}, and {{c1::diffraction}} are all boundary behaviors of waves associated with the {{c1::bending}} of the path of a wave.

physics waves behavior

##### {{c1::Reflection}} occurs when there is a {{c1::bouncing}} off of a barrier, following the {{c1::law of reflection}}.

physics waves reflection

##### {{c1::Refraction}} is the change in direction of waves when they travel from one {{c1::medium}} to another.

physics waves refraction

##### {{c1::Diffraction}} is the bending of waves around {{c1::obstacles}} and openings, increasing with {{c1::wavelength}}.

physics waves diffraction

##### The angle at which waves approach a barrier equals the angle at which they {{c1::reflect}} off the barrier, known as the {{c1::law of reflection}}.

waves reflection law

##### The {{c1::Law of Reflection Formula}} states that {{c1::Angle of Incidence}} = {{c1::Angle of Reflection}}.

waves reflection formula

##### {{c1::Angle of incidence}} is defined as the angle made by the incident ray and the {{c1::Normal}}, denoted by {{c1::zi}}.

waves reflection angles

##### {{c1::Angle of reflection}} is defined as the angle made by the reflected ray and the {{c1::Normal}}, denoted by {{c1::zr}}.

waves reflection angles

##### In regular reflection, the {{c1::angle of incidence}} is always equal to the {{c1::angle of reflection}}.

physics waves reflection

##### {{c1::Total internal reflection}} occurs when light rays travel from a more {{c1::optically denser medium}} to a less {{c1::optically denser medium}}.

waves reflection optics

##### When light rays travel from a more {{c1::optically denser}} medium to a less {{c1::optically denser}} medium, they are {{c1::refracted}}.

physics light refraction

##### A ray of light passing from {{c1::water}} to {{c1::air}} is refracted at the junction, bending away from the {{c1::normal}}.

physics light refraction

##### The angle of incidence at which the light ray passes along the surface of water is called the {{c1::critical angle}}.

physics light critical_angle

##### When the angle of incidence is greater than the {{c1::critical angle}}, the incident ray undergoes {{c1::total internal reflection}}.

physics light reflection

##### The formula for total internal reflection states that the {{c1::sine}} of the critical angle is equal to the ratio of refractive indices.

physics refraction formulas

##### In the total internal reflection formula, {{c1::n1}} is the refractive index in medium 1 and {{c1::n2}} is in medium 2.

physics refraction formulas

##### {{c1::Refraction}} involves a change in direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another, affecting their {{c1::speed}} and {{c1::wavelength}}.

physics waves refraction

##### The speed of waves depends on the {{c1::properties}} of the medium, and water waves travel fastest when the medium is {{c1::deepest}}.

physics waves medium

##### The {{c1::refractive index}} is the ratio of the speed of light in a {{c1::vacuum}} to its speed in a specific {{c1::medium}}.

physics refraction optics

##### Higher {{c1::refractive index}} indicates higher {{c1::optical density}} and slower speed of light in a medium.

physics density optics

##### The refractive index formula is represented by {{c1::n}}, which is the velocity of light in vacuum divided by the velocity in a {{c1::medium}}.

physics refraction formulas

##### When atoms absorb {{c1::electromagnetic radiation}}, electrons become 'excited' and move to a {{c1::higher energy level}}.

physics atoms radiation

##### The emission of {{c1::electromagnetic radiation}} causes electrons to move closer to the nucleus, to a {{c1::lower energy level}}.

physics atoms radiation

##### Electrons can become {{c1::excited}} and move further from the {{c1::nucleus}} to a {{c1::higher energy level}}.

physics energy electrons

##### The emission of {{c1::electromagnetic radiation}} causes electrons to move closer to the nucleus, to a {{c1::lower energy level}}.

physics energy radiation

##### The point of {{c1::refraction}} is created where the incident rays land and the angle it makes with the {{c1::refracted ray}}.

physics light refraction

##### The {{c1::medium}} through which the rays pass creates a considerable difference in {{c1::refraction}} unlike in {{c1::reflection}}.

physics light medium

##### The {{c1::refractive indices}} make the dependency on the medium apparent in {{c1::Snell's Law}}.

physics refraction snell's_law

##### The refractive index of {{c1::water}} is {{c1::1.33}} whereas the refractive index of {{c1::air}} is {{c1::1.00029}}.

physics refraction indices

##### To understand {{c1::Snell's Law}}, consider light of wavelength {{c1::600 nm}} going from water into the air.

physics light snell's_law

##### To calculate the angle made by the outgoing ray, we apply the figures in the {{c1::formula}} mentioned.

physics formula calculation

##### {{c1::Reflection}} involves a change in direction of waves when they bounce off a {{c1::barrier}}.

physics waves reflection

##### {{c1::Refraction}} involves a change in direction of waves as they pass from one {{c1::medium}} to another.

physics waves refraction

##### {{c1::Diffraction}} involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through an {{c1::opening}} or around a barrier.

physics waves diffraction

##### Water waves can travel around {{c1::corners}}, around {{c1::obstacles}}, and through {{c1::openings}}.

physics waves water

##### The amount of {{c1::diffraction}} increases with increasing {{c1::wavelength}} and decreases with decreasing wavelength.

physics wavelength diffraction

##### When two or more waves arrive at the same point, they {{c1::superimpose}} themselves on one another.

physics waves superposition

##### In {{c1::superposition}}, disturbances of waves correspond to a {{c1::force}}, and forces add together.

physics forces superposition

##### Pure {{c1::constructive interference}} of two identical waves produces one with {{c1::twice the amplitude}}.

physics waves interference

##### There are three types of applied force: {{c1::push}}, {{c1::pull}}, and {{c1::drag force}}.

physics force

##### Pure {{c1::destructive interference}} of two identical waves produces {{c1::zero amplitude}}, or complete cancellation.

physics interference cancellation

##### {{c1::Standing waves}} are due to reflections of waves from the ends of the {{c1::string}}.

physics waves standing_waves

##### Nodes are the points where the string does not move; they are where the wave disturbance is {{c1::zero}} in a standing wave.

physics waves nodes

##### The word {{c1::antinode}} denotes the location of {{c1::maximum amplitude}} in standing waves.

physics amplitude antinode

##### The word {{c1::antinode}} denotes the location of maximum {{c1::amplitude}} in {{c1::standing waves}}.

physics waves standing_waves

##### {{c1::Standing waves}} on strings have a frequency related to the {{c1::propagation speed}} v,, of the disturbance.

frequency waves strings

##### The {{c1::wavelength}} 4 is determined by the distance between the points where the string is {{c1::fixed}}.

wavelength waves strings

##### {{c1::Resonance}} is defined as the tendency of a system to vibrate with an increase in {{c1::amplitude}} at certain frequencies.

physics amplitude resonance

##### The {{c1::Q factor}} defines the sharpness of the {{c1::resonance}} and how fast energy decays in an oscillating system.

physics resonance q_factor

##### The sharpness of resonance depends upon {{c1::damping}}, which reduces the amplitude of vibrations.

amplitude resonance damping

##### As the {{c1::amplitude}} increases, the sharpness of resonance {{c1::decreases}}.

physics amplitude resonance

##### The {{c1::Doppler effect}} is defined as the increase or decrease in frequency of waves as the source and observer move towards or away from each other.

physics waves doppler_effect

##### Waves emitted by a source moving towards an observer get {{c1::compressed}}, while those moving away get {{c1::stretched out}}.

waves doppler_effect compression

##### The {{c1::Doppler effect formula}} calculates the apparent frequency based on the relative motion between the {{c1::source}} and the {{c1::observer}}.

frequency formula doppler_effect

##### When the source moves towards the observer at rest, the equation becomes: f’ = {{c1::observed frequency}} and f = {{c1::actual frequency}}.

doppler_effect observer source

##### When the source moves away from the observer at rest, the equation is modified to account for the {{c1::negative velocity}} of the source.

doppler_effect observer source

##### If the observer moves towards a stationary source, the equation simplifies to f = {{c1::observed frequency}} and f = {{c1::actual frequency}}.

doppler_effect observer source

##### In the case of a {{c1::stationary source}}, the equation simplifies to f = {{c1::observed frequency}}.

physics frequency sound

##### When the observer is moving away from a {{c1::stationary source}}, the velocity of the observer becomes {{c1::negative}}.

physics sound observer

##### Two trains A and B are moving toward each other at a speed of {{c1::432 km/h}}.

physics speed trains

##### The frequency of the whistle emitted by A is {{c1::800 Hz}}.

physics frequency sound

##### The apparent frequency of the whistle heard by the passenger in train B is {{c1::1600 Hz}}.

physics sound apparent_frequency

##### Sound intensity is defined as the {{c1::sound power}} per unit area.

physics intensity sound

##### The basic units of sound intensity are {{c1::watts/m²}}.

physics units sound

##### The decibel scale is used to measure {{c1::sound intensity}} relative to a standard threshold.

physics sound decibel

##### The formula for intensity is I = P / (4 {{c1:: π }} r²), where I is {{c1::intensity}} and P is {{c1::power}}.

physics sound formula

##### Beat frequency can be calculated using the equation Beat frequency = | {{c1::fi - fe}} |.

physics sound beat_frequency

##### The relationship between frequency and wavelength is given by {{c1::wave = λ }} f*.

physics waves relationship

##### Changing the length of the string affects the {{c1::wavelength}} and {{c1::frequency}} of the vibration.

physics sound string

##### The simplest wave pattern on a string is called the {{c1::first harmonic}}.

physics waves harmonics

##### The wavelength of the first harmonic is {{c1::4L}}.

physics wavelength waves

##### As the vibrating frequency increases, more complex wave patterns arise, such as the {{c1::second harmonic}}.

physics waves harmonics

##### The {{c1::third harmonic}} has four nodes and three antinodes.

physics waves harmonics

##### The {{c1::third harmonic}} has {{c1::four nodes}} and {{c1::three antinodes}}.

physics harmonics

##### The {{c1::nth harmonic}} will have ({{c1::n + 1}}) {{c1::nodes}} and {{c1::n}} {{c1::antinodes}}.

physics harmonics

##### The general expression for the {{c1::wavelength}} of the {{c1::nth harmonic}} on a string is {{c1::2L/n}}.

physics waves

##### The {{c1::natural frequency}} {{c1::f}} of any harmonic can be calculated using the wave equation {{c1::v = fA}}n*.

physics waves

##### For a pipe that is {{c1::open at both ends}}, the simplest wave pattern has {{c1::one central node}} and {{c1::two antinodes}}.

physics harmonics

##### The {{c1::normal force}} acts on a book placed on a table, opposing {{c1::gravity}}.

physics force

##### The {{c1::nth harmonic}} in a pipe of length {{c1::L}} will have ({{c1::n + 1}}) {{c1::antinodes}} and {{c1::n}} {{c1::nodes}}.

physics harmonics

##### The lowest harmonic in a pipe open at one end has a {{c1::half-loop}} with {{c1::one node}} and {{c1::one antinode}}.

physics harmonics

##### {{c1::White light}} is made up of different {{c1::colors}} of light, which move at different speeds in different {{c1::mediums}}.

physics light

##### {{c1::Dispersion}} is the property by which light spreads according to its {{c1::color}} as it passes through an object.

physics light

##### Different colors of light have different {{c1::wavelengths}}, which affects how they are bent in a {{c1::prism}}.

physics light

##### The {{c1::wavelength}} of violet light is {{c1::380-450 nm}} and its frequency is {{c1::680-790 THz}}.

physics light

##### Spherical mirrors are classified as {{c1::concave}} and {{c1::convex}} mirrors.

physics mirrors

##### The {{c1::net work done}} on an object is equal to the change in its {{c1::kinetic energy}}.

physics work

##### (Wnet) stands for the {{c1::net work}} done on an object, while (AKE) represents the change in {{c1::kinetic energy}}.

physics work

##### The change in {{c1::kinetic energy}} (AKE) of an object is represented by the formula AKE = {{c1::KE final}} - {{c1::KE initial}}.

physics energy kinetic

##### The {{c1::net work}} done on an object is equal to the change in its {{c1::kinetic energy}}.

physics work kinetic

##### If the {{c1::kinetic energy}} increases, the work done is {{c1::positive}}; if it decreases, the work done is {{c1::negative}}.

physics work energy

##### A {{c1::concave mirror}} has a reflective surface that is curved {{c1::inwards}}.

optics mirrors concave

##### Concave mirrors are also known as {{c1::converging mirrors}} and are used in {{c1::shaving mirrors}} and {{c1::telescopes}}.

optics mirrors concave

##### A {{c1::convex mirror}} has a reflective surface that is curved {{c1::outwards}}.

optics mirrors convex

##### Convex mirrors are useful for drivers as they reduce {{c1::blind spots}} and are also called {{c1::diverging mirrors}}.

optics mirrors convex

##### A {{c1::convex lens}} focuses light rays to a specific point, while a {{c1::concave lens}} diverges them.

optics convex lenses

##### Combining {{c1::concave}} and {{c1::convex lenses}} produces sharper images, commonly used in eyeglasses and {{c1::cameras}}.

optics lenses vision

##### The {{c1::focal length}} of an optical system indicates how strongly it converges or diverges light; a {{c1::positive}} focal length converges light.

light optics focal_length

##### {{c1::Scalar quantities}} have magnitude but no direction, while {{c1::vector quantities}} have both magnitude and direction.

physics quantities scalar

##### The scalar product of two vectors a and b is given as |a| {{c1:: |b| }} cos(@), where @ is the angle between them.

physics vectors dot_product

##### The {{c1::cross product}} is a form of vector multiplication performed between two vectors of different nature.

physics vectors cross_product

##### The {{c1::cross product}} is a form of {{c1::vector multiplication}} performed between two vectors of {{c1::different nature}}.

vectors math cross_product

##### The cross product of two vectors A and B is denoted by {{c1::A x B}} and is {{c1::perpendicular}} to both vectors.

vectors math cross_product

##### The cross product is used to determine the vector that is {{c1::perpendicular}} to the {{c1::plane surface}} spanned by two vectors.

vectors math cross_product

##### The formula for the cross product of vectors A and B is given by {{c1::A x B = |A| |B| sin(θ)}}.

vectors math cross_product

##### When {{c1::0 < θ < 90°}}, the work done is {{c1::positive}}.

physics work

##### When {{c1::90° < θ < 180°}}, the work done is {{c1::negative}}.

physics work

##### When θ = {{c1::90°}}, the work done is {{c1::zero}}.

physics work

##### The {{c1::first equation of motion}} relates initial velocity u, final velocity v, acceleration a, and time t.

physics motion

##### The {{c1::second equation of motion}} relates distance s, initial velocity u, final velocity v, and acceleration a.

physics motion

##### The {{c1::third equation of motion}} is given by {{c1::v² - u² = 2as}}.

physics motion

##### Muscular force occurs when muscles create a force that is in {{c1::contact}} with an object.

physics forces muscular_force

##### {{c1::Spring force}} is exerted by a {{c1::compressed}} or {{c1::stretched spring}}.

physics forces spring_force

##### Frictional force arises when an object changes its state of motion and acts as an {{c1::opposing force}}.

physics forces frictional_force

##### Friction has two types: {{c1::sliding}} and {{c1::static}} friction.

physics friction forces

##### The frictional force is used to {{c1::ignite}} a matchstick or {{c1::halt}} a moving ball.

physics friction

##### There are two types of friction: {{c1::sliding}} and {{c1::static}} friction.

physics friction

##### When you push a table across the room, you apply a force known as {{c1::applied force}}.

physics force

##### The force exerted by a stretched cable is known as {{c1::tension force}}.

physics force

##### When moving through the air, objects experience {{c1::air resistance}}.

physics force

##### {{c1::Gravitational force}} is described by Newton's law of gravity, stating it is {{c1::directly}} equal to the product of masses.

physics gravity

##### {{c1::Electrostatic forces}} can be attractive or repulsive based on the charge of the bodies.

physics forces

##### {{c1::Magnetic forces}} are exerted by a magnet on magnetic objects without physical interaction.

physics forces

##### To find {{c1::density}}, use the formula: {{c1::D = M/V}}.

physics density

##### The amount of space an object occupies is known as its {{c1::volume}}.

physics volume

##### The amount of matter in an object is referred to as its {{c1::mass}}.

physics mass

##### The {{c1::sine}} function in trigonometry is the ratio of the side opposite an angle to the {{c1::hypotenuse}}.

mathematics trigonometry

##### The {{c1::cosine}} function is the ratio of the side adjacent to an angle to the {{c1::hypotenuse}}.

mathematics trigonometry

##### The {{c1::tangent}} of an angle is the ratio between the {{c1::adjacent}} side and the {{c1::opposite}} side.

mathematics trigonometry

##### Force can be resolved into two rectangular components along the {{c1::coordinate axes}}.

physics force

##### {{c1::Displacement}} is a vector quantity that describes an object's change in {{c1::position}}.

physics motion

##### {{c1::Distance}} refers to the total movement of an object without regard to direction, making it a {{c1::scalar quantity}}.

physics motion

##### {{c1::Displacement}} is a {{c1::vector quantity}} that describes an object's change in position.

physics displacement vector

##### {{c1::Distance}} is a {{c1::scalar quantity}} that refers to the total movement of an object without regard to {{c1::direction}}.

physics distance scalar

##### Displacement is equal to {{c1::final position}} minus {{c1::initial position}}.

physics displacement position

##### The SI unit for pressure is the {{c1::Pascal (Pa)}}.

physics pressure units

##### 1 atm is equal to {{c1::1.01325 x 10^5 Pa}}.

physics pressure atmosphere

##### 1 atm is equivalent to {{c1::101.325 kPa}}.

physics pressure kilopascal

##### 1 atm equals {{c1::760 mmHg}}.

physics pressure mmhg

##### 1 atm is equal to {{c1::760 torr}}.

physics pressure torr

##### 1 atm is approximately {{c1::14.7 psi}}.

physics pressure psi

##### The {{c1::Coulomb constant}} (k) is approximately {{c1::8.99 x 10^9 N m²/C²}}.

physics coulomb constant